When Ichthyosaurs Led a Revolution in the Seas

PBS Eons

PBS Eons

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    The marine reptiles Ichthyosaurs arose after The Great Dying, which wiped out at least 90 percent of life in the oceans, changing the seas forever and triggering a new evolutionary arms race between predator and prey.
    Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations:
    Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda
    Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/
    Dmitry Bogdanov: www.deviantart.com/dibgd
    Nobu Tamura: spinops.blogspot.com/
    Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony
    Nikolay Zverkov: www.deviantart.com/ngzver
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: us-new.com/client-pbsdigitalstudios
    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan
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    Published on 3 months ago


    1. Pikasammiechu 101

      That moment when you attempt Bill Wurtz tune of "Its the Cambrian Explosion !!!" 😂😂😂

    2. TYTO

      ahh so interesting!

    3. Hiro Kurobane

      4:19,, that's really BIG

    4. Un Mapache Sexy

      iT's ThE CaAaAAMbRiAN exPlOciONNNN

    5. Imdugud

      IT was more like 70 - 30. After the last great War with the Reptiles. Many Left Earth and the others went up on the land.

    6. Khyrid

      Imagine somehow some of these things survived to today, you are in the ocean swimming and you think you have been visited by a friendly dolphin, then you see it closer.

    7. josh L

      Should have been named as dolphineCastroRevolutionSaurus.

    8. Shelby Muffoletto

      Im sorry did he reference Bill Wurtz

    9. X. P.

      Am I the only one who’s freaked out by the bone structures in the californasaur’s flipper? How do fingers become that?

    10. Woko100

      Ichtyosaurs: TO THE GILLOUTINE trilobite

    11. Name not found

      2:37 _There’s always a bigger fish._

    12. broderick kurtz

      Did you make a Bill Wurtz reference?

    13. ReZ Breaker

      2:22 stop. Love your channel but just stop

    14. Madalin Grama

      You gotta do an episode on each of the major groups of marine reptiles: long-necked plesiosaurs, mosasars and my personal favorites, the pliosars.

    15. Mark Thommes

      here is a relative of those big eyed fish, says it dates back 300 million years in its ancestry www.fox13news.com/news/fisherman-catches-strange-dinosaur-like-creature?fbclid=IwAR1H5ETlt4CHhEWP-qqHaxQG2auYpbwp-v3TveolcfZ4avGf3IMmR2FkdiE#/

      1. Mark Thommes

        i saw this and remembered this video and searched around for it to share

    16. KajuZeulKapra 777

      One about cattle and the domestication/ migration of cattle with humans would be awesome.

    17. Jiolo Macling

      can i ask where the piano music just before the ending music?

    18. Jordi Vanderwaal

      Human: leads a revolution => goes to jail. Ichthyosaur: leads a revolution => is praised millions of years after it goes extinct.

    19. Mad Cinder

      I still like Hank better as a host, but this guy is good. Kinda looks like Indy Neidell, which makes me feel more at home.

    20. Kirby Proffitt

      I do t understand how information to grow thicker shells is passed on to the next generation, if the animal that needed it got eaten. How?

      1. Hm Grraarrpffrzz

        You have a species of animals. Those inviduals with a thin shell get killed. Those with a thicker shell survive and pass the genes for a thicker shell to their offspring -> next generation is more likely to have thicker shells.

    21. T Chy

      pretty insane that sharks saw the rise & fall of both icthyosaurs & mosasaurs

    22. Forever Happy

      Hey PBS i would like you to cover animals cannibalistic tendecies.I know every animal can have these tendecies but intuitive part of me wants to connect everything to bigger picture.Im gona bring some hypothese on the play here.Tyrannosaurus had cannibalistic tendecies.Does this come from the type of the enviroment he was living back in later crateous without any direct competition from other huge meat eaters.We know in north Africa back in early creteous there was an ecosystem with more then one specie at the top of the food chan.There was Charcarodontosaurus,Spinosaurus,huge croks...The reason for herbivore dinosaurs to merge in the groups is to be safer.The reason for carnivores to merge into the groups is to be able to hunt biger pray but in north Africa for carnivore dinosaurs the roots of merging in social group might have the same reason as the herbivores,to be safer in the enviroment.Imagine one Spinosaurs walking near the river,if he comes in touch with group of 5 huge Carcarodontos,hes not gona have a good time.Social structure should bring much higher understanding and intelligence overall in the species so it negates the idea of cannibalism but this is not case with Giganotosaurus at least not in the brain size.Those things used to hunt huge long necks and thats why they lived in packs but their brain size was not so big while in north america we have a Trex which brain size has been evolving because of the direct comflict with different type of the animals.Those were hard shelled,defensive Ankilosaurs and Triceratops.Trex needed more cognitive function,binocular vision and intelligence to strike single blow where was needed.This means one animal with expirience can hunt and live alone and be smarter then those who live in the packs.This hypothese falls down at least in this case.Does the enviroment which has more competitors for the same food niche produces behaviour less canibalistic because why would one specie fight its own if there is danger of the other species?How those species they coexist?How do they behave?Maybe huge Carcaros do not need to feel pressured by the competition so they dont merge into the packs,just being solo hunters and not getting into the conflict with other animals might just be a different vision or behavioural idea.Lets take look in this video.Early jurassic seas were abundant with animal life.There were plesiosaurs,ihtiosaurs,fish,sharks all coexisting because its sea enviroment,up and down rotations,left,right,360°,70% of earth covered in water,different level of deepness,tons of fish to eat.Once ihtiosaurs went extinct Mosasaurs slowly took over the niches and now we have different picture.There was ecosystem with Mosasaur on the top,Mosasaur in the middle and the bottom.It means one specie rules everything.The only thing this specie is affraid is its own specie.Once they are on the top of the food chain and the competition is gone there is no need for pack behaviour resulting in more of cannibalism.Now take that picture of ancient seas and pay attention to the first sentence i wrote.Compare this enviroment of Mosasaur rule with Trex.The only difference is that in Trex world there were no other tyrannosaurs filling the niches.Its just one big bad Trex and next to him were raptors.It means he is the only one there,so why not cannibalism?im gona shut up now.

    23. Genji Takiya

      It's a generalist.. not a specialist

    24. Steven Smith

      All this has happened before, and all this will happen again.

    25. Nikhil Tuli

      Looks like a danger dolphin!!

    26. Bovine Terror

      Omg Cartorhynchus is so adorable!

    27. Emerson Han

      Fish: I wonder what the great dying was like Humans: I can help you with that

    28. SKPjoe Coursegold

      singing............................................stick to your day job.

    29. SmaCk You d1cK

      something very certain when that dinosaurs lead revolution. they will wear yellow jacket or umbrella

    30. Matthew Chenault

      Did... did he just reference “History of the entire world, I guess”?

    31. Jourdan Wolf

      2:22 My man been watching Bill Wurtz 😂

    32. Toke Bro

      2:21 u know where that melody is from :)

    33. I E

      4:07 ...because of the frontheavy mass distribution (asymmetric wave oscillation)

    34. Elizabeth Sucher

      These are great vids! THANKS!

    35. 6Twisted

      It’s weird how evolution often comes up with completely different designs to tackle the same problem. I wonder how many species are actually optimal.

    36. Devon Robinson

      3:03 Am I the only one who thinks that Cartorhynchus is the most adorable thing in the world.

    37. Harneev D

      Who else actually thinks prehistoric animals are cooler than our modern day animals

    38. Soy Baniszewski

      Modern Ichthyosaurs: Dolphins

    39. Burt1038

      Man, this video is making me hungry for some seafood. Maybe redfish with scallops and crabmeat.

    40. Emblazened

      2:21 Thank you for the Bill Wurtz.

    41. 3die3ra

      From what I see i believe that's a dolphin

    42. LucasWerewolf

      I find these on land cause they have a tendency to beach them self and die..

    43. Yangster Supreme

      0:02 "a new predator" *looks adorable*

    44. Shehin Muhammad

      ice age move

    45. Snip3rPr0223

      No marine mammals look like them

    46. HardToMell o

      Are nautilus dinosaurs or did they come after the asteroid

    47. Rufus The Hunal Prophet

      You ain't real if you don't remember the Cambrian Explosion 👌

    48. Richard Deese

      We're a pair of flippers and you really can't ignore us A dorsal fin & a tail fluke sure are handy & they wouldn't bore us And if you're a reptile with these things You're Californosaurus Thanks! :o) 𝓡𝓲𝓴𝓴𝓲 𝓣𝓲𝓴𝓴𝓲.

    49. Mystic Legion

      It's funny how these documentaries talk like they know exactly what happened and how they lived back then. Now we are starting to figure out dinosaurs were covered in feathers but we are suppose to believe what u guys are saying right? Lol.

      1. A Guy Who Likes Penguins

        Mystic Legion Yeah! It’s not like it was discovered using science to examine the bone structures of those dinosaurs or anything like that!

      2. John DC

        Hmm? It's not like they're saying that every dinosaur had feathers. Most of their research is still correct and is still backed by evidence.

    50. M12GProductions

      The Ichthyosaur revolution will NOT be televised, cuz TV didn't exist back then.

    51. artificus

      This voice ... It sounds like TREY the Explainer .... O__O

    52. Snarethedrummer

      Please do a video on chiroptera!

    53. totalfreedom45

      According to the WWF there may be 100 million species. With a yearly extinction rate of 0.01% at least 10,000 are gone a year. Could there be another Great Dying (1:52)? Unlike that extinction the one going on now seems to be caused mostly by _Homo sapiens sapiens._ 😱 😭

    54. Ahoy Hoy

      Why is the host saying ichthyosaurus and not ichthyosaur?

    55. Sylvia Else

      They lasted for 157 million years, but my ancestors from the start of that time still have living descendants, so who was the better survivor?

    56. Positivity

      I feel i this comment is dumb because the others are intellectual in a way but when i was younger i liked ichthyosaurs i didnt know why because there were veloceraptors and the tyrannosaurus rex but i stuck with the ichthyosaur and now i know why Edit: i love the fact that he did the *cambrian explosion* it was great

    57. Nor Adrenalin

      Are we just going to ignore how goddamn cute this lizard-seal is?

    58. pippin & the book next door

      let's hear it for the mf nevada state fossil babey!!!!!!!

    59. Verum

      4:34 that comment "that's usually what I do" caught me so off guard lol The way he says it is so casual, it's hilarious

    60. King Stuff

      The people in the comment section confuse me greatly. Also... great dying happens... June Wayne voice:”MORTALITY CLARIFIED IN A SINGLE STRIKE!”

    61. Mark Zoobkoff

      It kind of looks like a dolphin

    62. jugadug

      what is interesting to me is the large eyes shows that the dived really deep and spent along time down there considering the would have breathe air that is amazing sperm whales do the same but they did it first

    63. William Davis

      Were they cold blooded?

    64. Sqlteh

      Where was this when I needed it for my science project.. 😑

    65. Sasha Minimoore

      Tholodus , huh, more like thotlodus

    66. suresh krishendeholl

      This is a very nice video. It contain many useful information.

    67. Mr Red

      Hhhhhhh revolution

    68. Marwan Yassin

      4:35 hahaha

    69. j nieblin

      5:58 t-rex of the sea!

    70. Jaycee Williams

      What counts at reptiles since those extremely fish like animals are classified as reptiles

      1. John DC

        Well technically anything that evolved from the basal ancestors of reptiles, are considered reptiles. Technically, birds would be reptiles as well because they evolved from a creature that was considered to be one of the basal reptiles.